Neutron stars observed with gravitational-wave astronomy
Discoveries by LIGO, Virgo and KAGRA are informing our understanding of dense matter and stellar evolution. We have used the gravitational-wave data of GW170817 − the first and nearest signal from merging neutron stars − to learn about dense matter in the source stars and to guide astronomical partners' observations of light from the collision’s aftermath. More distant sources primarily tell us about the source masses, and observed neutron-star mergers have revealed that gravitational-wave sources include binary systems unlike those previously observed in our Galaxy. In this talk, I will outline these observational results and discuss the methods being developed to explore matter and mass properties for LIGO/Virgo neutron stars. I will discuss how current results fit with other neutron-star observations, outline prospects for learning about neutron stars in the current Advanced-detector era, and extrapolate to the astronomical potential of next-generation gravitational-wave observatories like Cosmic Explorer.