Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements of a deuterium-ion plasma-irradiated bulk zinc oxide single crystal
To better understand radiation-matter interaction at the surface, we perform grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) measurements of a deuterium-ion (D-ion) plasma-irradiated bulk zinc oxide (ZnO) single crystal. The D-ion-irradiated crystal exhibits the (100) reflection of hexagonal wurtzite ZnO similar to the non-irradiated sample but with an asymmetric and shifted peak, broader rocking curve, larger a-axis lattice constant, and positive Cauchy strain along the a-axis. These structural properties are attributed to the presence of a strained lattice on the irradiated surface of the bulk crystal. D-ion irradiation of the ZnO (100) surface leads to a lattice expansion along the crystal's a-axis and in-plane compression along the c-axis. Our results show the specific effects of D-ion plasma irradiation on the ZnO crystal lattice along with the interaction of D-ions with the ZnO surface.